1925: The (Turkish) Palestine Citizenship Ordinance went into
effect. It said that any "Turkish subject" in Palestine as of August
1, 1925 shall become a Palestinian citizen, unless he opts for Turkish
nationality, or nationality of another state.
1926: At Constantinople it was announced that the Jews of Turkey formally
renounced their rights as minorities. They would for now on be considered
full citizens with equal rights as all citizens have.
1389: Catholic Archdeacon and Jew hater Ferran Martinez is denied
the right to act as a judge or to preach after going against an order
of the Pope. The Archbishop of Seville issued this strong
punishment because Martinez refused to issue permits for Jews to build
new synagogues, in accordance with the wishes of the Pope.
1675: The "Great Synagogue" was inaugurated in Amsterdam on Rapenburgerstraat.
This was a Sephardic synagogue, home to K.K. Talmud Torah, which was
a union of Congregations Neveh Shalom (1608) and Bet Yisrael (1618).
1942: A large group of Jews who were trapped under Spanish and German
rule in Morocco sent an eloquent appeal for help to the AJDC in New
York. "Gentlemen, please excuse our daring attitude in addressing
this pathetical letter to you, in our distressful hour; but it is
written in the Talmud, 'when trouble comes upon Israel like a rushing
stream, look for someone to help you.'."
1492: Luis de Torres, the first Jew to arrive in the "New World"
1910: Died, former Chief Rabbi of Turkey, Moise Levy. He died in Constantinople
at the age of 89.
1914: During WWI, Germany declares war against France, while Turkey
declares itself neutral. During the war, Jews from around
the world came to help the French, including 600 Turkish Jews (as
well as Jews from other Ottoman territories) signed up with the French
Foreign Legion to help in the battle against the Germans.
1914: Serbia declares war against Germany.
1920: Bucharest, Romania considers Turkish Jews enemy aliens. They
intern the Jews, sequester their property and threaten to expulse
them. The Union of Native Jews of Romania intervenes to help.
1772: In a letter from Jacob ben Abraham Benider to the Earl
of Rochford (Britain), Jacob tells how he was appointed by the Emperor
of Morocco to be the Moroccan Minister to the English Court [of King
1945: It is reported that the total number of rabbis in Salonica are
at least eight.
1356: The King of Aragon sent his Jewish physician to tend to
the wounds of a Muslim who was fighting in the kings army.
1492: A large group of Jews from Spain, thousands strong, arrived
in the Port of Naples. Jews from Sardinia soon joined them.
1916: Chief Rabbi of Salonica received a telegram from the Minister
of Interior stating the government has taken steps to ensure tranquility
for the Jews on Corfu, after a blood libel accusation arose.
1634: Seventeen arrests were made by the Inquisition after a
man turned another man in for being "unwilling to make a sale on Saturday,"
and for not wanting to eat bacon.
1909: Chief Rabbi of Adrianople forced to resign by Jews of Demotica for
failing to take action and not protesting against the change in market
day at Demotica, from Thursday to Saturday.
1917: Turkish representative at The Hague, Netherlands denies negotiations
took place between the Turkey and former United States ambassador,
Henry Morgenthau regarding the sale of Palestine to the Jews.
1910: Protest by Jews in Serres, Salonica against the use of
the 200-year-old Jewish cemetery site for the construction of a new
hospital. The plan was later abandoned.
1945: From Halkis, Greece it was reported, "The one man capable of
teaching Hebrew and Judaism. Rabbi Davidson Matsa and his wife and
6 children have recently left for Janina, where he hopes to function
as rabbi. He originally came from Janina. Individual Jews are trying
to fill his place by carrying on religious activities in the Synagogue."
1917: The Turkish military leader Djemal Pasha announces the
Turkish government has become convinced that the Jewish colonies inside
Palestine must be destroyed, so they won't present a danger to the
integrity of Turkey.
1945: From Larissa, Greece it was reported:
"One synagogue is completely destroyed, not even the foundation exists,
so thorough has been the German destruction. The other synagogue has
been almost-completely destroyed, also- It cannot be used in its present
1877: Died, Jacques Judah Lyons, hazzan, rabbi and community
leader, who was born in Surinam and emigrated to Philadelphia in the
early 1800s. He was the Minister of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue
for 38 years, collecting extensive materials on early Jewish history
in the United States, Canada and the West Indies.
1486: Twenty men and five women were burned after being sentenced
at an auto-de-fe in Toledo on the charge of Judaizing. Among them
were Dr. Alonso Cota and many other notables of the town. They were
marched through town being humiliated wearing the dreadful san benito,
with their hands tied to their neck behind their backs.
1926: Sephardic and Oriental Jews at a Zionist conference in Vienna
had their delegates gather for the purpose of furthering Zionist interests
among their peoples.
1943: The Spanish government stated that they would allow more repatriated
Jews to come to Spain, "only if those in Spain already left." The
obvious lack of sentiment on the part of Spain was apparent to the
Joint Distribution Committee, which went ahead and placed a "priority"
on emigration of "these so-called Sephardics...." The Jews who did
make it to Spain were not in any way treated like citizens.
1917: A tremendous fire swept through the Jewish quarter of
Salonica leaving 50,000 Jews homeless. Thirty-two synagogues and fifty
Jewish schools were destroyed. The Jews suffered 90% damage to everything
1939: 85,000 Jews in Slovakia were terrified, being robbed and pillaged
by the non-Jews, who were encouraged by the Germans.
1307: Jaume II of Majorca expelled the Jews from the provinces
of Rousillon and Montpellier. Many escaped to Barcelona where they
1916: Rabbinical seminaries in Florence and Leghorn, Italy merge due
to lack of funds.
1918: Due to massive fires in Salonica, 50,000 Jews are homeless-nearly
the entire population of the city.
1910: Ritual murder charges raised against Jews in Aidin, Asia
1941: Several Jews were pulled from their homes in Sabac by
the Germans, then brought into the street and shot. The Germans made
other Jews come carry the dead bodies through the town, and then hang
them from electricity poles. This attacked was the beginning of a
series of attacks which lasted for 2 months and resulted in several
thousands of Jewish murders.
1840: Persecution of the Jews of Damascus brought together Congregation
B'nai Jesheran in New York City to declare: "Resolved, that we do
most emphatically and solemnly deny, as well in our own name as in
that of the whole Jewish people, that murder was ever committed by
the Jews of Damascus, or those of any other part of the world for
the purpose of using the blood or any part of a human being in the
ceremonies of our religion." U.S. President Van Buren
instructed his officer at Constantinople to help the persecuted Jew
1921: A Sephardic organization which was to include all Sephardic
Jews from around the world was founded in Madrid. It planned to defend
Jewish interests everywhere.
1370: Judah Alatzar, a Spanish Jew, lent the king and queen
110,000 sueldos of Barcelona for the equipment of ten ships for the
transfer of the Pope from Rome to Avignon.
1604: An exemption was issued by the Pope allowing Portuguese conversos
to seek pardon for their "offenses," and have their items returned
to them. This order was not respected by the Inquisition in the New
1654: Jacob Barsimon, the first Jewish settler to arrive in New Amsterdam
(New York) on the ship De Pereboom (Pear Tree) that had sailed from
Amsterdam. He had left Holland on July 8, 1654.
1821: On this day came an end of the Spanish Inquisition in Venezuela.
The Venezuela government wrote, "The Tribunal of the Inquisition,
also known as the Holy Office, shall be abolished."
1920: Organization of Shibat Zion was founded at Smyrna. It would
become affiliated with the Zionist Federation at Constantinople.
1929: After the Mufti of Jerusalem made slanderous and enraging
attacks against the Jews, severe riots manifested. The Arabs were
told by he Mufti, "Remember that the Jew is your strong enemy, and
the enemy of your ancestors since olden times…for it is he who tortured
Christ…and poisoned Mohammed…." Rioting and death broke out in towns
through out Palestine with a total of 130 Jews being murdered by the
1263: The Jews in Barcelona received permission to build a new
synagogue. Four years later the building needed repairs, and the government
authorized the Jewish community to go ahead with the repairs on March
1813: Born, Jacques Judah Lyons, hazzan, rabbi, and community
leader was born in Surinam, Dutch Guiana. His parents,
Judah Eleazar and Mary Asser Lyons, had emigrated to Surinam from
Philadelphia in the early 1800s.
1916: Italian government develops a plan for administration of the
Jewish community in Tripoli.
1916: Romania declares war against Austro-Hungary and starts
invading. Germany and Turkey come to the aid of Austro-Hungary and
declare war on Romania.
1655: In a resolution of the New Amsterdam Council, Peter Stuyvesant
writes, "whether the Jewish people who reside in this city, should
also train and mount guard with the citizen's bands, this was taken
into consideration, and deliberated upon…" The result was that the
Dutch members of the citizen guard had a "disinclination" and "unwillingness"
to be on guard with Jews in the same guardhouse. They also pointed
out that Jews were "not counted among the citizens…"
1236: King Jaime of Spain Jews had three weeks to remove all
blasphemy from their books (Talmud).
1906: Native Muslim soldiers attack the Hara (Jewish Quarter)
1918: Jews of Salonica who were originally Ottoman subjects are
exempted from alien restrictions, which have previously been installed